Key Tasks for April
The emphasis at this time of the year will be on mowing frequency, as long as there is sufficient moisture within the soil.
Mowing. Greens should be mown at least three times a week, with some grooming, verti-cutting or brushing being undertaken on a weekly or twice weekly cycle to improve air movement and reduce thatch levels building up in the sward profile.
The sward will be actively growing due to the increased soil temperatures, coupled with the stimulation of fertiliser applications. Regular mowing will be required to maintain sward height at around 4-5mm. Verti-cutting/grooming fortnightly can be carried out to help speed up the green and help improve the health of your turf.
Aeration should continue, using a mix of micro, needle or star tines which give maximum effect and almost zero turf disturbance.
Regular use of a sarrel roller will be beneficial and the use of micro tines to aerate the green will help reduce soil compaction, 'vent' the root-zone and to allow water to move quickly from the surface and into the root-zone, thus encouraging the turf to root deeper.
Irrigation: Soil and air temperatures usually increase in April, often bringing on the need to irrigate. If soil profiles, particularly sandy soils, are allowed to dry out too much they often become water repellent (hydrophobic), a state when soils can become difficult to re-wet. Often the first areas to suffer on greens, particularly crown greens, are the high spots on the green. You may need to spend more time hand watering these problem areas.
When you do water, ensure you go to a depth of 100-150mm to encourage the roots to go down to find the water.
Adequate temperature, light and water are the key drivers of plant growth. Whilst the sun continues to rise on a daily basis, light of one intensity or another remains available consistently. At any time of the year, and particularly during April when there tends to be disparity between day time highs and night time low temperatures, accompanied by dry periods without rainfall, often the trend these days, over and above the ‘April showers’ of yesteryear, adequate temperature and water are the two factors which determine grass growth. As always, the key to success is looking ahead and factoring in strategies to keep in front of the curve whilst, at the same time, reflecting back as to what lessons can be learned.
On winter sports pitches, maximising spring recovery growth from the winter with good quality sports turf fertilisers increases the sward density ahead of the end of season. This is something which potentially allows for a reduction in the volume of overseeding requirement during renovations. For amateur clubs, this is a key consideration, especially given the reduced seed harvest yield in 2018 as a consequence of the long dry summer; a factor which was compounded by high demand across droughted areas, necessitating manufacturers to dip into stores of the 2018 crop in the autumn of the same year; a course of action required by turf managers needing to repair dead patches before the winter.
Here we sit then in spring 2019, with reduced availability of seed and increased demand as turf managers again dip into the depleted 2018 harvest to tackle areas which did not recover adequately. The outcome of this situation in the supply chain is increased demand, clashing with decreased availability. The consequence is less choice and increased price.
The reason I raise this is for awareness. It is important that turf managers are aware of such a situation and how it came to be. The situation is of course a consequence; a consequence of an extreme weather pattern, and one which is predicted to increase in probability over the coming years.
The key consideration then for turf managers is how does this potentially affect my club and what can I learn for the future? In the case of availability for the 2018 seed harvest throughout the 2019 growing season, it may well be:
- You can’t get exactly what you want.
- You can’t get it when you want it.
- It will cost more.
The contemplative questions for the turf manager are;
- How will that affect my maintenance timings?
- How will that affect playing surface quality?
- How will that affect my budget?
The overriding point here is; greater unpredictability of the climate leads to more uncertainty in respect of what we can do, when we can do it and for how much money.
Anyone who wishes to ride the ups and downs of these unpredictabilities in a smoother fashion, with less buffeting and a more consistent product for players, will be an individual who factors in flexibility of their approach with respect to planning maintenance operations, and is able to communicate that requirement effectively to their members, players and wider stakeholders.
For example; dry soils in October and November 2018 would have benefited enormously from applications of penetrant wetting agents in a bid to capture as much available rain all as possible and channel it down into the soil profile. It is then positioned to act as a reservoir for 2019. Areas which are still dry only a few inches below the surface will burn off much faster than in 2019 than they did in 2018. In turn, lower water resource in the soil means that plant stress will be encountered with less cumulative dry days, and likely sooner in the year than in 2018 when water was in good supply. As a result, implementing block-copolymer wetting agent programmes and checking irrigation efficiency this April are actions more important than ever.
These examples of consequence from extreme climate is of course something which is not sport specific, golf fairways, tees and surrounds, football pitches, bowling greens and cricket outfields are all effected equally alongside grassed amenity spaces. Would a penetrant wetting agent, at relatively low cost per hectare, applied in autumn 2018 have gone some way to help mitigate a potential problem in 2019?
Another example which is prevalent on many areas where grass died and did not recover well in the autumn is weeds and moss recolonising these areas faster than the grass plants. This may well require such areas to be sprayed with a selective herbicide as we get towards the end of April and into May. Is this something which has been budgeted for? If it is not undertaken, what are the consequences for consistent turf quality moving forward?
In areas which had suffered from the 2018 drought, one should be mindful that not all grass is equal. I was stood on a bowling green with a gentleman only two weeks ago, who happily proclaimed that even though the green had been rendered completely brown in summer 2018, it was fine now that a coverage of grass was infilling the worst of the extensive bare patches.
A discerning eye revealed the grass growing in these areas to be almost entirely poa annua; a weak, shallow rooted annual species evolved in the wild to rapidly colonise shallow soils, flower and then shed the seed of the next generation as quickly as possible. A trait evolved in preparation of the weather turning dry over the summer, quickly forcing it to enter dormancy then death. The truth on the green in question was that whilst grass is returning, it is not a grass which will provide a sustainable and good quality playing surface once water and warmth are not at optimum levels. Unlike perennial grass species, poa annua will be the first species to cause a problem by checking out once the going gets tough.
The overriding message from these examples is intended to be; don’t rely on what worked last year to suffice this year - always be looking ahead, by asking questions and seeking answers for how to deal with what lies around the corner.
- Keep machines overhauled and clean.
- Inspect and repair any watering or irrigation systems.
- Continue to check and service your floodlighting systems.
- Replace any worn tines on your aeration equipment.
Grounds Training was established in 2006 to provide a complete and unique service delivery training courses for the sports turf industry. We are now the go-to provider for on-site, bespoke training for groups. Alongside our renowned turf maintenance which now includes Lantra accredited Online courses. Grounds Training also works with the industry’s awarding bodies – Lantra and City & Guilds (NPTC).
Open courses for individuals to join are also offered at our Allscott (Telford) Training Centre, Most courses lead to Lantra Awards or NPTC qualifications; a small number of niche courses where the instructor is an experienced groundsman who is also Lantra Awards or NPTC registered, offer Pitchcare certification.
Whether your staff are involved with preparing and maintaining sports turf, operating ground care machinery and equipment or require a safe use of pesticides qualification, we have the course to suit them.
For more information on our online courses click here
The Course Manual at just £30 is available for purchase separately.
Here are our upcoming open courses:
PA1/ PA6A- Thursday 11th/ Friday 12th April, Allscott Telford TF6 5DY