jjb-stadium.jpgThe recent warm weather spell will continue to promote grass growth especially when soil and air temperatures remain above 10 degrees C. Together with early heavy morning dews it will, however, also increase the likelihood of a disease attack. Keep an eye out for early signs.

Take time to inspect your playing surfaces on a daily basis looking out for changes in colour, yellowing, mottling or paling of the leaf blade. Also watch out for signs of the fungi mycelium forming, usually seen in the early mornings. Identifying the disease early will reap rewards in preventing a large scale outbreak.

Removing early morning dews by brushing or dragging hose pipes over the playing surface will help reduce the incidence of diseaseThe changing weather fronts in November often brings prolong periods of wet weather, soil based pitches will soon reach field capacity or indeed become saturated after periods of rain.

Pore spaces, particularly in soil dominant pitches, will be filled with water (saturated). Playing on saturated pitches will certainly result in surface damage. Soils, when saturated, lose their stability and strength. The action of players running, stopping, sliding and turning in studded/bladed boots will result in surface damage. The severity of the damage will be dependant upon the soil type and the ability of the top 100mm to drain quickly.

To help keep the top 100mm free draining a programme of surface aeration is necessary. This is achieved by regular spiking with solrugbydiary-2005-aerator.jpgid/slit tines to a depth of 150 mm or more when conditions allow. There are other specialist machines that can help with improving surface drainage, for example the Blec Groundbreaker ,and the versatile vertidrain machines that are now available. Frequency will be dependant on resources available, money/labour etc. Most league clubs will be aerating on a fortnight/monthly basis, varying the depth.

Top dressing with an approved sportsfield sand/ soil (70/30) dressing will certainly improve/restore the surface drainage characteristics of your pitch. Ideally, an annual dressing of between 60-100 tonnes of material should be used, preferably applied in the spring, however, light dressings of sand can still be applied in November during favourable conditions.

While temperatures remain moderately high for the time of the year, at between 10-12 degrees C, grass growth will be stimulated. There is still time to apply some late autumn/winter fertilisers, something like a 4:0:10 or even a longer slow release 11:0:33 N P K product that will see the grass through the winter period.

Earthworm activity usually increases in November. Earthworms can survive in a wide range of conditions, but most earthworm activity is dependent on the quality of food available. Worms like plenty of Organic Matter (OM), therefore greens with a high thatch problem tend to encourage worm activity. Soil pH also affects where earthworms are found. In strongly acid or alkaline soils earthworms are rarely seen (pH less than 4.5 or greater than 8). The soil texture will also affect the number of earthworms found; they prefer clay soils and are less frequently found in sandy soils.

Worm activity inevitability leads to worm casts appearing on the playing surface. These worm casts can be very problematic, casts tend to smear the surface, which in turn can affect surface water drainage capacity as well as providing a seed bed for weed germination.

Historically, earthworms have been controlled chemically, killing all earthworms in the turf. The most widely used chemical was chlordane, an organochloride, now banned due to it's wide ranging toxic effects and persistence in the environment. Other chemicals such as benomyl, carbendazium, thiabendazole and thiophanate-methyl (all of which are primarily fungicides) have an effect on earthworm populations. Research has shown that thiophanate-methyl is the most effective at reducing casting. All these fungicides are considerably less effective at earthworm control than chlordane. . A wetting agent is sometimes used with the fungicide to help it penetrate deep enough down into the soil profile.

November tasks for football

Aeration / When conditions allow / Hand or machine aeration to aid surface drainage, at varying depths of penetration to prevent the development of a soil pan and provide adequate air space for roots to colonise. Soil organisms can still be active in November so any aeration processes will help increase microbial soil activity.

Brushing/Sweeping Daily/ To remove dew and remove surface debris. Using a brush or a SISIS quadraplay will restore levels and produce striping or banding aesthetics.

Disease / Daily/ Keep and eye on fungal disease attack, and use approved fungicides to treat infected areas. Fairy rings, red thread, leaf spot and fusarium can often be widespread during November divoting newcastle

Divoting / After matches and training / Playing surfaces are becoming wetter increasing the likelihood of surface damage during games. Repairs and replacing divots after matches is an important part of the maintenance programme to restore playing surfaces.

The use of a hand fork and foot techniques is the best way to return/replace divots. However, on larger areas, the use of harrows will help return levels on the pitch after play.

Drainage / Weekly / Inspect drainage outfalls, channels and ditches. Ensure that they are working efficiently.

Fertiliser programme / If grass shows signs of stress (weak growth, discoloured)
Fertiliser treatment and turf tonics can be continued in accordance with your annual programme. If you haven't got a fertiliser programme, have your soil tested; try an independent soil analysis company for an impartial set of results.

Generally, no fertiliser applications are made during the winter months, as plant growth has slowed down. However, some groundstaff may apply a dose of liquid iron to colour up and provide some strength to the grass plant during the winter months.

Goal posts / Weekly / Inspect goal posts and sockets to check they are safe and secure. Check nets to make sure they aren't damaged.

Grooming/verticutting / As required / Grooming and verticutting are operations that remove unwanted side grass growth and reduce the amount of debris in the sward. These operations are carried out on a regular basis, often weekly or fortnightly, in conjunction with your mowing regimes.

Harrowing/raking / When conditions allow / Helps to restore levels and keep surfaces open.

Irrigation / As required / The need for irrigation has been greatly reduced. Lower temperatures and early morning dews have increased the humidity of the air above the turf surface, thus reducing evaportranspiration rates (ET).

If you do have to irrigate then it is important to irrigate uniformly, ensuring the right amount of water is applied. Ensure that the waApril-diary-football-corner.jpgter gets deep into the root-zone to encourage deep rooting. Allowing areas to dry out can lead to dry patch, a condition that prevents water infiltration into the soil, thus forming areas of non-uniform turf quality.

Many professional football Groundsmen often have to water the pitch prior to games, to specifically speed up the playing surface for players.

Litter/debris / Daily/ Inspect and remove debris from playing surface, litter, twigs and leaves.

Marking out / As required / Use approved marking compounds/materials and ensure all line markings comply with FA rules and regulations.

Check manufacturers guide lines when mixing / diluting concentrate materials for your marking machine. Always clean the machine after use.

Always check your lines, it often pays to string out your lines when marking. Using a line helps keeps the lines straight and accurate.

Machinery (Repairs and maintenance) / Daily Inspect and clean machinery after use; service and repair damaged machinery.

Mowing / As required / Remember to check the height of cut; at this time of year, the pitch can be cut at a height between 19 mm-35 mm. Continue to mow the on a regular basis. Frequency of mowing will be dependant on growth, ground conditions and presentation requirements.

Cutting grass in very wet conditions can often be detrimental to the playing surface. The mower may smear and damage the surface especially when turning. The quality of cut can be affected if the grass is very wet.

Quality of cut will be dependent on what type of mower is used. Cylinder mowers can offer different cutting qualities, which are governed by the amount of blades on the cylinder. A five bladed cylinder will give you a fine quality cut on rye grasses.

Post match renovation / After matches / Replace divots , clean up surface by brushing or using a rotary mower to clean up surface debris. Repair worn areas (goalmouths / linesman runs)

Top dress to restore levels (localised)

Pre match inspections / As required / Inspecting pitch surface and line markings

Checking post safety

Keep goalmouths roped off to stop unwanted early use - in an ideal world the pitch should be completely out of bounds.

Tidy up the edges of the pitch, strim around advertising signs and crowd barriers. Presentation on the pitch will be let down badly by unkempt edges.

Seed bare & worn areas / When conditions allow / Seeding of sparse or bare areas can still be carried out. Rye grasses will still germinate in November without the aid of germination sheets. Use germination sheets to aid the process of germination but remove the sheets regularly to check for diseases. Remember that without good seed to soil contact the operation is useless. Ensure you use new seed as old seed may not give you the required germination rates.

Weeds / As required / It's now getting late into the season for applying selective herbicides; soil and air temperatures are not ideal for effective responses from these herbicide products. Hand weeding will be the most effective method of weed control during the winter months.

Soil tests / Ideally once or twice a year, or as required. Soil sampling is an important part of Groundmanship. The results will enable the manager to have a better understanding of the current status of his soil and turf. There are many tests that can be undertaken, but usually the main tests to consider are:

Particle Size Distribution (PSD) this will give you accurate information on the soil type and it's particle make up, enabling you to match up with appropriate top dressing materials and ensuring you are able to maintain a consistent hydraulic conductivity (drainage rate) of your soil profile.

Soil pH, it is important to keep the soil at a pH of 5.5-6.5, a suitable level for most grass plants.

Organic matter content, it is important to keep a balanced level of organic matter content in the soil profile.

Nutrient Levels. Keeping a balance of N P K nutrients within the soil profile is essential for healthy plant growth.

Once you have this information you will be in a better position to plan your season's feeding and maintenance programmes.