April Golf Diary

By Laurence Gale MSc


Many areas of the UK are still experiencing cold and wet spells which, in most cases, are bringing a slow start to the growing season. Soil and air temperatures have risen little above 12 degrees centigrade causing sporadic grass growth. Golf courses on clay soils will be affected most, as it takes longer for these heavier soils to warm up.

However, it is imperative to get on with any programmed spring renovations. The intensity of renovations will be governed by the condition of the greens and how well they have come through the winter period. In the main most courses will be looking to aerate their greens and get some new top dressing materials back into the surface to restore levels and maintain surface porosity.

Choice of aeration generally varies between solid tine and hollow tine spiking depending on your goals, with the aim of getting some air back into the soil profile. This will be followed by top dressing with a compatible rootzone material. Do not over do the top dressing rates, you do not want to smother your sward.

The type of sand used in top dressings is vitally important, and you should be aware that most sand sales in the UK are for other uses. The sports turf market is small in comparison. So be careful if you are offered cheap materials, as these are often finer, differ in shape, colour, lime content and are more interpacking than the sands specified for sports turf. Cheap top dressings are often comprised of sands with a wide range of particle sizes. When compressed they have a smaller total pore space than uniform sands and therefore are inferior. For golf, winter pitches and bowling greens the dominant particle range in the sand should be medium sand (0.250 to 0.5mm) Pitchcare Article Top dressings explained

The amount of top dressing will vary dependant on your needs. However, in the spring you would be looking to spread between half to one and half tonnes of material per green (2-3mm of material M2). Many greenkeepers are now topdressing on a monthly basis, a little and often approach.

Feeding programmes should be determined by soil analysis. Obtaining nutrient levels for greens tees and fairways will provide essential information that can be used to help choose the appropriate fertiliser product for your given turf surface. There are a wide range of fertiliser products now available and tailored to stimulate healthy grass growth. See following link to search fertiliser products.

It is important that your mowing machines serviced regularly and are set up accurately, ensuring that both the height of cut and blade sharpness are correct. Damaged blades affect sward quality.

Irrigation systems should have been tested and calibrated by now, there is a need to ensure that all sprinkler heads are working and delivering the appropriate amount of water to the turf.

Most of the tasks detailed can be undertaken within a limited budget. Local conditions and circumstances will need to be taken into account. If any members are undertaking any specific work not detailed, please let us know by adding a comment in the section below the diary.

April Maintenance Tasks for Golf Courses

Natural Grass






When conditions allow

Greens. Spring remedial works will continue in April. All greens to be aerated using mechanical vertidrain / multi-core type aerators.

Tees. Spring remedial works continue in April. All tees to be aerated using mechanical vertidrain / multi-core type aerators.

Fairways. Ongoing aeration works will continue on fairways using various types of aerators (varying depths of penetration to prevent the development of a soil pan).

Amenity areas


Tidy up any flower and shrub borders around the club house and entrance. April is a good time to plan summer bedding schemes, allowing time for costing and securing plant materials.

Brushing / Sweeping


Daily/ Weekly

Greens & Tees. Prior to mowing the surface should be thoroughly brushed. Continue to brush greens and tees daily to remove moisture from the grass surface, stopping the spread of disease and facilitating an improved quality of cut on the dry grass.



Daily / weekly

Inspect, weed and rake bunkers.

Course Inspection


Inspect greens, tees, flags and hole positions for damage or vandalism.

Diseases including Moss & Algae

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Daily / Weekly

Greens , Tees , Fairways. Keep an eye on fungal disease attack, and use approved fungicides to treat infected areas.


As required

Greens, Tees and Fairways. Repair any divots and scars.



Inspect drainage outfalls, channels and ditches. Ensure that they are working.

Fertiliser programme

If grass shows signs of stress (weak growth, discoloured)

Fertiliser treatment and turf tonic can be continued in accordance with your annual programme. If you haven't got a fertiliser programme, have your soil tested; try an independent soil analysis company for an impartial set of results.

Most grounds staff will be applying a spring/summer N P K fertiliser, perhaps something like a 12/0/9 or 9/7/7 will effectively get the grass moving during April, then towards the end of April early May applying a slow release fertiliser to see you through June/July. However, the choice of material and how well it works can be dependant on many factors, soil type, weather, with moisture and and air temperature being the catalyst for growth.


As required

Keep all footpaths clean and free from debris, check any step details and hand rails ( Health & Safety).

Frost and snow

As required

April weather is generally still very unpredictable, rain, sleet and snow can all occur. Keep people and equipment off playing surfaces when covered in frost and snow.

Harrowing / raking

When conditions allow

Fairways. Harrowing / raking helps restore levels and keep surfaces open.

Hole Changing


As required

Changing of holes should be carried out regularly, however frequency will be dependant on a number of factors, green size, greens construction, tournaments, amount of play and condition of the green. During wet periods it is likely the hole will wear more quickly, resulting in a crowning affect and surface wear. This wear is more apparent if the green has thatch problems. The hole will tend to wear quickly and form a depression, caused by the placement of the golfers feet. You may be looking to change the hole positions more than three time per week during wet periods.

Most golf courses are changing their hole positions at least three times a week.

Inspect Course structures

As required

The Course, Clubhouse, Car parks. Check and repair fences, seating, shelters, bridges, litter bins, boot and ball cleaners, signs, and tee boxes.


Daily and weekly

Ensure that automatic watering systems have been serviced and repaired ready for the new season, check and monitor all sprinkler head controls/valves to see if they are working, and check the spray patterns and timing of each and every sprinkler head. Also check any manual systems, hose pipes, sprinklers and pumps.

There may be a need to irrigate during spring renovation programmes, as air temperatures and day light hours are getting longer, increasing the likelihood of the ground and surfaces drying out.

Litter / debris

Daily / Weekly

Greens, Tees and Fairways. Inspect and remove debris from playing surfaces. Litter, twigs and leaves. Regularly empty litter bins/tee boxes.

Machinery (Repairs & Maintenance)

Daily / Weekly

Inspect and clean machinery after use, service and repair damaged machinery, prepare machinery ready for new mowing season.

Marking out


Mark out trolley areas, out of bound site areas and range markings.



Estimate and order seed, loams and fertilisers, fuels and other consumables.



As required

April sees the mowing operations in full swing, with mowing frequencies varying from daily to weekly operations dependant on the growth of the grass and the standards set by the course managers. Mowing heights may vary depending on local conditions, type of course, course expectations, sward type and mower type. The mowing heights are a guide, and will be subject to local weather conditions, but remember not to remove more than 1/3 of total grass height in each cut. The less stress that is placed on the grass at this vital time the better the results further on into the season.

Greens. Mowing height should be maintained at around 4-8mm.

Tees. Mowing height should be maintained at around 10-15mm.

Fairways. Mowing height should be maintained at around 15-20mm.

Rough, Semi rough grass areas. Mow and tidy up these areas.

Pest control

As required

Worm treatments can be carried out if needed, but please remember to ask yourself why worms are present. Ph level, organic matter and your cultural practices on the turf surfaces need to be assessed.

Moles and rabbit damage, repairs as required.

Ponds, lakes and streams


Inspect all water features on course, cleaning out any unwanted debris and litter.


As required

Green & Tees. April is still a very busy period for scarifying. Removing horizontally growing grasses and surface organic matter plays an important part in the spring renovation programme.

Seed bare & worn areas

When conditions allow

Greens, Tees and Fairways. Over seeding of sparse or bare areas can be continued, the rise in temperature will help germination. Use germination sheets to aid this process but remove the sheets regularly to check for diseases. Remember that without good seed to soil contact the operation is useless.

Ensure you use new seed as old material may not give you the required germination rates. Remember, bents and fescue grasses require higher soil temperatures for successful germination, you may need to wait for favourable temperatures later in the year.

Tee boxes, pegs


As required

All Tee boxes, tee pegs and competition markers should inspected daily, cleaned and moved to new tee positions as required.

Top dressing

As required

Greens & Tees. Ensure you have enough top dressing material for the spring renovation works that may still be carried out in April.

Wetting agents

As required

April is still a good time to apply any wetting agents onto grass areas, it's better to apply these products before the soil begins to dry out.

Woodland & conservation areas.


As required

High and strong winds can damage trees on golf courses. Inspect and repair or remove damaged trees. It is important to inspect trees regularly (heath & safety) to reduce the likelihood of a golfer being struck by tree debris.

Artificial Tees and Mats

Artificial Grass Systems


Keep surface clean, regular sweeping and brushing. Remove any algae and moss from surface.

Sand filled systems require regular brushing to maintain manufacturer's recommendations for sand levels and pile heights.

Rubber Tee Mats

As required

Keep clean, all temporary winter mats to be cleaned and stored away.