Many clubs are well into their winter works programmes. This is often associated with drainage improvements around the course or may include refurbishment, new build or extensions to bunkers, tees and greens.

Most leaves will have fallen by now, so a last big tidy up before Christmas usually sees the back of this annual task. The job of clearing up these leaves and debris will be a priority.

Allowing leaves to rot on your sward will lead to turf damage. Switching, brushing, blowing or caning the greens each morning will be a priority task to remove any leaf debris and early morning dew.

Many greenkepers are now trained to use chainsaws enabling them to carry out tree works on their courses especially when ground conditions prevent other work being done. There always plenty of tree work to be done with the bonus of having a nice warm bonfire to burn the debris.

Air flow around greens and tees is important. It helps reduce the incidence of disease, moss and algae problems. Felling trees is often a contentious subject, some people will fight against it, often ignorant of the reasons why it needs to be done. In most cases, it is about thinning tree plantations and removing poor specimen trees.

Other tree and woodland work may include some crown lifting, the removal of low hanging branches to allow access for mowing operations.The timber can be put to many good uses, some clubs sell it on for fuel, use it as footpath edging or create log piles to encourage wildlife.

The recent wet November weather has increased worm activity on many courses. Earthworm activity can often persist well into December if temperatures remain favourable. Earthworms can survive in a wide range of conditions, but most earthworm activity is dependent on the quality of food available. Worms like plenty of Organic Matter (OM), therefore greens with a high thatch problem tend to encourage worm activity. Soil pH also affects where earthworms are found. In strongly acid or alkaline soils, earthworms are rarely seen with a pH less than 4.5 or greater than 8. The soil texture will also affect the number of earthworms; they prefer clay soils and are less frequently found in sandy soils.

As we progress through the month, air temperatures are likely to lower, with many golf courses experiencing morning frosts. It is important to prevent people from walking over the grass surfaces (preventing surface damage to the sward) during frosty conditions. Courses should be kept closed if possible during heavy frosts.

Key Tasks for December
Frost
Frost Main3

What happens to turf in frost conditions?

Frost on the grass leaf blades tells us that the water inside the leaves is frozen. Remember that 80%+ of plant tissue is made up of water, the primary component of plant tissue. When this water is frozen, foot traffic on the turf causes the ice crystals in the cells to puncture through the plant's cell walls, thus killing plant tissue.

When frozen, the leaves of the turf get easily bruised by players' feet. After thawing, the affected turf turns black or brown and becomes sparse. The turf can often remain thin for long periods if damage occurs early in the winter. The fine turf on greens becomes more susceptible to disease and the putting surface becomes uneven.

More long-term damage can be caused if play takes place when the turf is thawing after a prolonged freeze. Under these conditions the top surface of the turf may be soft, but the underlying soil can still be frozen. Root damage occurs easily from a shearing action as players' feet move the soft top surface against the frozen sub soil.

The process of damage to the turf normally occurs in the following pattern:

* Bruising and damage to the leaf
* Loss of turf colour
* Severing of grass roots
* Compaction of the soil
* Thinning of the swards

The decision to close the course or parts of the course should be down to the Course Manager/Head Greenkeeper. Effective communication is essential to inform all parties of the decision. This is usually in the form of signage and messages to confirm the reason and the expected time the course or parts of the course will be closed.

Ground conditions are changing, especially on the heavier clay soil courses where soil profiles can become saturated. Some golf courses may be implementing winter path restrictions, ensuring the golf traffic is kept to dedicated paths and tracks to prevent unnecessary grass wear or damage.

This may also involve the restriction on using buggies and, in some instances, trolleys on the course. Winter tee mats and temporary greens may also come into play with many golf courses resting their competition tees and greens.

Heavy rainfall will have washed and leached out soil nutrients, especially on sandy and free draining sites. The loss of nutrients from the soil profile inevitably puts the sward under stress, decreasing the plants ability to withstand an attack of disease.

Most golf Course Managers/Greenkeepers are preparing their courses for the winter period. Daily maintenance is ongoing with the added burden of leaf clearing.

Useful Information for Frost

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Greens, Tees and Fairways
1. A well presented golf hole

Prior to mowing, the surface should be thoroughly brushed. Continue to brush greens and tees daily to remove moisture from the grass surface, stopping the spread of disease and facilitating an improved quality of cut on the dry grass.

Keep an eye on fungal disease attack. Cool, moist and even mild conditions can still be experienced in December, favourable conditions for an outbreak of disease. Use approved fungicides to treat infected areas.

Repair any divots and scars. Mix grass seed with a soil /sand rootzone and back fill the divots and scars with soil /seed mix. The seed will still germinate in favourable weather conditions

After autumn renovations most course managers/greenkeepers will be looking to increase mowing heights on greens and tees by 1-2mm, with many factors dictating the height of cut - soil type, grass species and golf traffic.

Other tasks that complement this work involve the use of grooming and verticutting units to remove unwanted thatch and side shoot growth.

Mowing frequencies will vary from daily to twice weekly operations dependant on the growth of the grass and the standards set by the course manager. Mowing heights may vary depending on local conditions, type of course, course expectations, sward type and mower type.

The mowing heights are a guide, and will be subject to local weather conditions, but remember not to remove more than 1/3 of total grass height in each cut. The less stress that is placed on the grass at this vital time the better the results further on into the next season.

Greens. Mowing height should be maintained at around 6-8mm.
Tees. Mowing height should be maintained at around 10-15mm.
Banks. Mowing height should be maintained at 22-30mm
Fairways. Mowing height should be maintained at around 15-25mm.

Rough, Semi rough grass areas. Mow and tidy up these areas. Reduce build up of clippings by cutting little and often with a rotary or flail. Mowing height will depend on type of course and the standard of play required. Mowing height of cut during the winter between 50-100mm.

Fertiliser treatment and turf tonic can be continued in accordance with your annual programme. If you haven't got a fertiliser programme, have your soil tested; try an independent soil analysis company for an impartial set of results.

Fertiliser programmes are not generally carried out after December due to the change in air and soil temperatures as most turf grasses usually start to become dormant, slower growing. However, some greenkeepers may apply some liquid iron to keep the turf healthy and strong. USGA greens often do require some top-up feeding during the winter to maintain nutrient status of the green.

Changing of holes should be carried out regularly, however frequency will be dependant on a number of factors, green size, green construction, tournaments, amount of play and condition of the green.

During wet periods, it is likely the hole will wear more quickly, resulting in a crowning affect and surface wear. This wear is more apparent if the green has thatch problems. The hole will tend to wear quickly and form a depression caused by the placement of the golfers' feet. You may be looking to change the hole positions more than three time per week during wet periods.

Greens. Aeration of tees will continue throughout the winter when weather conditions allow. A wide range of solid or slit aerators are put to use on the greens. Its essential to keep the greens aerated to maintain air and gas exchange in the soil profile. Thus improving the drainage capabilities of the greens.

Tees. Aeration of tees will continue throughout the winter when weather conditions allow.

Fairways. When the ground conditions are favourable, aerate with solid tines to increase air and gas exchanges in soil profile. Encouraging deeper rooting of fairway grasses is important. Deeper rooted grasses are more likely to overcome stresses in the following year.

Inspect drainage outfalls, channels and ditches. Ensure that they are working.

It is during the winter months that most golf course managers / greenkeepers can evaluate the condition and performance of their drainage systems.

Useful Information for Greens, Tees and Fairways

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Aeration
AerationMain.jpg

Greens. Aeration of greens will continue throughout the winter when weather conditions allow. A wide range of solid or slit aerators are put to use on the greens. It is essential to keep the greens aerated to maintain air and gas exchange in the soil profile, thus improving its drainage capabilities.

Tees. Aeration of tees will continue throughout the winter when weather conditions allow.

Fairways. When the ground conditions are favourable, aerate with solid tines to increase air and gas exchanges in soil profile. Encouraging deeper rooting of fairway grasses is important. Deeper rooted grasses are more likely to overcome stresses in the following year.

Inspect drainage outfalls, channels and ditches. Ensure that they are working.

It is during the winter months that most golf course managers / greenkeepers can evaluate the condition and performance of their drainage systems.

Useful Information for Aeration

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Why should we carry out aeration? Golf Green Grass Seed
Bunkers
Furness Bunkers

Inspect, weed and rake bunkers. Repair any damage from rabbits or other animals, maintain sand up the face of the bunkers to prevent erosion and sand loss.

Some golf courses experience flash floods during heavy rain fall, leaving many bunkers in a poor state (washing out sand from bunker faces). Repair works may be necessary.

Bunker construction work may be ongoing in December, subject to ground conditions allowing for transport of materials around.

Useful Information for Bunkers

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Are Your Bunkers up to Scratch? Sand
Pests and Disease
StIves Disease

Disease: During December, disease pressure from Fusarium in particular is likely to remain high for many inland courses. The key with all disease control is to avoid putting the turf under stress from both an environmental and management aspect.

As soil temperatures fall then the mode of action from chemical control needs to be one of curative as opposed to systemic, as well as preventing further attacks. Select a product that is appropriate for this time of year.

Pests: Earthworms are by far the most common pest to affect turf quality at this time of year. It is not the earthworm that causes the damage, but the cast which is brought to the surface that causes all sorts of problems which have been listed previously. Recent updated studies reveal no real progress on their control other than the use of Carbendazim.

Regular sand dressings will help to reduce numbers, but that is a long term process and one that only yields a reduction in activity. The use of Carbendazim remains under threat from the EU and, to date, there is no suitable alternative.

Leatherjackets, or rather the grubs, are the next most common pest than can afflict damage on turfgrass, whereby emerging larvae feed on the roots of turf.

Turf Disorders: Both Algae and Black Layer continue to be the most likely turf disorder at this time of year, and both have been mentioned in detail in previous articles. Both are a symptom of poor growing conditions caused by poor drainage and a lack of oxygen in the soil. Both can be treated chemically, but it is the condition in which they exist that needs to be changed.

Useful Information for Pests and Disease

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Other Tasks for the Month
  • Insect, check and empty all litter bins

  • Time to organise winter servicing of machinery

  • Keep stock of all materials