May is a busy time for most rugby football facilities with the end of season renovation works either started or programmed to start. There may be a few exceptions when some clubs have to complete end of season fixtures and cup games late into May. The level of renovation and how it is achieved will vary greatly and will be dependant on number of factors:
· Type of facility, its construction and soil composition.
· Drainage capacity
· Extent of wear and damage to the pitches
· Budgets available
· Equipment available
· Skills and resources of the ground staff
· Time available to complete the works and allowing for establishment
· The use of specialised contractor services.
Your end of season renovations will be determined by what wear you have suffered and the present condition of the pitch.
Most of the Premiership Groundsmen will be completely renovating their playing surfaces utilising the Koro fraise mower to clean off or reduce the amount of existing vegetation from their pitch, and oversowing.
For most top-flight clubs this method is now being done every year or every other year depending on the condition of their pitch. The aim is to remove the poa and oversow with desirable perennial rye grasses.
To do this they use a combination of Koro machines, power harrows and seed drills.
Most, if not all of these operations are carried out by specialist sports turf contractors, who are geared up to complete this work within days, enabling valuable time for establishment.
However, the key factors that influence what renovations are carried out, especially in lower level rugby facilities such as local authority, schools and club pitches, are cost, time and resources.
Advisors and consultants are available, at a price, to assess your requirements and provide a report detailing the worksrequired and costs. However, also look in-house, you may already have the necessary expertise.
If possible, obtain a soil analysis of your pitch, measuring for particle size analysis, organic matter content, soil pH and nutrient status. This information will help you decide what materials to use in respect of grass, fertilisers and topdressings.
In the main you should be looking to carry out the following end of season operations:
Aeration / hollow core to de-compact the pitch
Verticutting / scarifying to clean out unwanted debris
Repair worn areas
Brushing /drag matting
Watering, if required
Aeration:- Ideally, it would be best to hire a vertidrain machine with 25mm diameter tines that can provide deep aeration down to 300mm depth. This will ensure you have relieved all the compaction and will also provide holes for the top dressing materials to fill. A linear aerator can also be used to decompact your pitches.
Vericutting:- The Weidenmann verticut harrow can be used for quick and efficient removal of thatch using a high working speed of up to 12km/h. The verticutting tines aggressively pull up thatch and deposit it on the surface. The tines are placed in five rows with a 16mm distance between rows.
Repair worn areas:- Small localised worn areas can be repaired by cultivating down to a depth of 75-100 mm, restore levels by adding any additional soil and overseeding.
Topdressing:- Topdressing is carried out to help restore levels, improve soil structure, improve surface drainage and aid seed germination. Ideally the whole pitch (7000m2) should be topdressed with about 60-100 tonnes of materials. Generally, the choice of materials is either approved medium sand (particle size ranging from 0.125mm-1mm) or 70:30 rootzone (sand soil mix). The dressing should be brushed into the playing surface so it works it way into any low spots and the vertidrain holes.
Overseeding:- It is essential to ensure that all worn areas have been overseeded at a rate of 35-50g/m2. The whole pitch should then be overseeded. Seed should be disc drilled into the profile to ensure seed/soil contact is made for better germination. A typical method now being used is to overseed in three passes, two passes with a disc seeder that directly drills into the soil profile and one pass with a dimple seeder (surface seeding) both operations completed at a higher seeding rate of 50 g/ m2.
Brushing:- You will then drag matt / brush the pitch to work in the materials and seed.
Fertilising:- To help the sward recover quickly and encourage the new grasses to establish a dose of fertiliser is required, usually in the form of a late spring or early summer fertiliser appied at a rate of 35-50g/m2. Most groundstaff will be applying a spring/summer fertiliser, perhaps something like a 9/7/7 which will get the grass moving during May. Then, towards the end of the month, look to putting on a slow release fertiliser to see you through June and July.
Watering:- Once the seed has germinated there may be a need to irrigate if dry weather persists. Newly sown seed, having shallow roots, will need adequate water to survive and establish.
The commercial cost (from an approved sports turf contractor) for the above operations for one rugby pitch ranges between £3000-£5000 depending on choice of materials used. The rate would come down if more than one pitch is to be completed.
The high cost is mainly due to the supply and spreading the topdressings. The material alone (sand) can cost anything up to £20 per tonne, with a spreading cost of between £5-7 per tonne. Based on 100 tonnes supplied and spread this item alone comes to around £2700.
It is often this cost that deters people from topdressing their pitches, which is why we see so many poor pitches in the UK. Topdressing is an important part of the maintenance loop and is essential for restoring pitch levels and improving surface drainage.
Once the renovations have been completed and the new grass has germinated, ongoing maintenance must be followed up to help promote a dense sward, regular mowing is essential.
I see many rugby clubs which, once the season has finished, stop mowing the grass, resulting in the grass growing long (200-300mm) and weak. Regular mowing (cutting height 35-50mm), at least on a weekly basis, is essential to encourage the sward to thicken.
Any major resurfacing or drainage works are usually programmed to coincide with end of season renovations works.
May tasks for Rugby
Aeration /When conditions allow:- Hand or machine aeration to aid surface drainage, varying depths of penetration to prevent the development of a soil pan.
Brushing / sweeping / Daily / weekly:- To remove dew and remove surface debris. Using a brush or a SISIS quadraplay will restore levels and produce striping or banding aesthetics.
Disease /Daily / weekly:- Keep and eye on fungal disease attack, and use approved fungicides to treat infected areas.
Fertiliser programme / If grass shows signs of stress (weak growth, discoloured):- Fertiliser treatment and turf tonic can be continued in accordance with your annual programme. If you haven't got a fertiliser programme, have your soil tested; try an independent soil analysis company for an impartial set of results. Most groundstaff will be applying a spring/summer fertiliser, something like a 9/7/7.
Harrowing / raking / When conditions allow:- Helps restore levels and keep surfaces open.
Irrigation equipment / Weekly:- Inspect installations for leaks. There may be a need to irrigate during any renovation programmes, as air temperatures and daylight hours are getting longer, increasing the likelihood of the ground drying out. It's important to ensure that the water gets down deep into the root-zone to encourage deep rooting. Allowing areas to dry out can lead to problems of dry patch, a condition that prevents water infiltration into the soil and thus forming areas of non-uniform turf quality.
Litter / debris/ Daily / Weekly:- Inspect and remove debris from playing surface litter or any wind blown tree debris, litter, twigs and leaves.
Machinery (Repairs and maintenance) /Daily / Weekly:- Inspect and clean machinery after use; service and repair damaged machinery.
Mowing / As required:- To maintain sward height 35-50mm. Frequency of mowing will increase to maintain sward height as soil and air temperatures begin to rise initiating grass growth.
Seed bare & worn areas / When conditions allow:- Seeding of sparse or bare areas can be carried out; the rise in temperatures will help germination. Use germination sheets to aid this process but remove the sheets regularly to check for diseases. Remember that without good seed to soil contact the operation is useless. Ensure you use new seed as old material may not give you the required germination rates.
Soil tests / Ideally once or twice a year, or as required.
Soil sampling is an important part of groundmanship. The results will enable the manager to have a better understanding of the current status of his soil and turf. There are many tests that can be undertaken, but usually the main tests to consider are:
* Particle Size Distribution (PSD), this will give you accurate information on the soil type and it's particle make up, enabling you to match up with appropriate top dressing materials and ensuring you are able to maintain a consistent hydraulic conductivity (drainage rate) of your soil profile.
* Soil pH, it is important to keep the soil at a pH of 5.5-6.5, a suitable level for most grass plants.
* Organic matter content, it is important to keep a balanced level of organic matter content in the soil profile.
* Nutrient Levels, keeping a balance of N P K nutrients within the soil profile is essential for healthy plant growth.
Once you have this information you will be in a better position to plan your season's feeding and maintenance programmes.