Stoke and Lilleshall golf jan 10 001.jpgHaving come through one of the severest winters for many years, the combination of poor weather and heavy pitch usage through January will have taken its toll on many pitches up and down the country. Many are standing wet and remaining in a saturated state. February is usually one of the most difficult months of the year for maintaining grass pitches, particularly those that have no surface water drainage systems installed.

Most soil-based pitches will, and can, often remain saturated for long periods of time during the winter. It is during these times that surface damage can occur. Often, there is a lot of pressure on facility managers to get matches on whatever the weather; no one likes postponed or cancelled games.

Training pitches are even more prone to damage, often having to accommodate many age groups and two or more training sessions per week. To reduce wear, rotate where the teams train.

With the pitches remaining wet it is often quite difficult to get machinery on to aid recovery, sometimes you can cause more damage by trying to do something.

woodrush rfc 045.jpgSoil structures are easily damaged when wet. The decision to play a fixture should be down to the groundsman/manager who knows the facility and understands the consequences of playing one game too many, particularly now when grass growth is slow or dormant due to the low soil and air temperatures.

Water Holding Capacity of Soils:

There are three important levels of soil moisture content that reflect the availability of water in the soil. These levels are commonly referred to as: saturation, field capacity and wilting point. When a soil is saturated, the soil pores are filled with water, and nearly all of the air in the soil has been displaced by water. The water held in the soil between saturation and field capacity is gravitational water. Frequently, gravitational water will take a few days to drain through the soil profile and some can be absorbed by roots of plants. Field capacity is defined as the level of soil moisture left in the soil after drainage of the gravitational water. Water held between field capacity and the wilting point is available for plant use.

Grass plants can easily extract water from a soil when its moisture is at or near field capacity. As a soil begins to dry out, however, increasingly stronger forces hold the pore water until a point is reached when plants can no longer extract any water from the soil. This state of soil moisture is the "wilting point of a soil".

woodrush rfc 059.jpgIt is during saturation, when the soil is at its wettest, that surface damage is most vulnerable; the wet soil loses its binding strength resulting in the grass plant being easily sheared during play. The most susceptible soils are clay and heavy clay loams that do not drain freely, or soil based pitches that do not have any primary/secondary drainage to aid surface water removal.

The speed of water filtration through the soil profile will be totally dependant on the soil type and the amount and size of the pore spaces in the soil profile. However, the groundsman can aid these pore spaces by carrying out a programme of aeration (spiking) when soil conditions are right, providing he can get the appropriate machinery on the pitch without causing any damage or smearing to the playing surfaces.

Regular spiking and, if possible, the introduction of sand dressings will definitely improve soil water movement in the top 100mm of your pitches, thus improving surface playability during the winter months.

Temperatures will begin to rise in February, which can often bring a flush of growth. Ensure you have your mowers ready to keep the grass maintained at the correct height of 25-75mm.

You should have also arranged, if you have not already done so, servicing of all your maintenance machinery ready for the new growing season. Similarly, any end of season renovation works, especially if contemplating using outside contractors for this work, should be booked early to avoid disappointment.

Key Tasks


Aeration: Frequency - when conditions allow - hand or machine aeration to aid surface drainage, varying depths of penetration to prevent the development of a soil pan. As last month, if there is opportunity to aerate, then do it. Regular winter aeration provides air space for the roots to expand into and allow the plant to breathe.

Brushing/sweeping: Frequency - daily. To remove dew and remove surface debris. Using a brush or a SISIS quadraplay will restore levels and produce striping or banding aesthetics.

Disease: Keep and eye on fungal disease attack, and use approved fungicides to treat infected areas. Early morning dew on playing surfaces often promotes the chance of disease attack. Regular brushing off the dew will help prevent an attack of turf disease.

Drainage: Weekly Inspect drainage outfalls, channels and ditches. Ensure that they are working. It is important to ensure that pitches that have primary/secondary sand bands/sand groove drainage systems are kept operational. During wet conditions these bypass systems often get capped over by surface soil thus reducing their efficiency. Regular spiking and annual sand dressing of the pitch will keep these drainage channels open and working.

Fertiliser programme: If grass shows signs of stress (weak growth, discoloured. Generally, no fertiliser applications are made during the winter months, as plant growth has slowed down. However, some groundstaff do apply a dose of liquid iron to colour up and provide some strength to the grass plant.

Harrowing/raking: Frequency - when conditions allow. Use prior to and after matches; harrowing helps to restore levels and keep surfaces open.

Machinery (Repairs and maintenance): Daily or after use Inspect and clean machinery after use; service and repair damaged machinery. Do not forget there are other ways of getting equipment for a particularl job, such as hiring or borrowing from another local sports club /golf club.

Agrivator-Rugby-School_website.jpgPre and post match maintenance regimes

Mowing/cleaning up playing surface: Using a pedestrain box mower (cylinder or rotary ) will help clean and prepare the surface for matches.

Maintain sward height at 25mm-75mm. The top height will cushion heavy falls on hard ground. Ensure your mowing blades are kept sharp and well adjusted. Cutting grass in very wet conditions can often be detrimental to the playing surface. The mower may smear and damage the surface, especially when turning. The quality of cut can be affected if the grass is very wet.

Divoting: Frequency - after games. Playing surfaces are becoming wetter, increasing the likelihood of surface damage during games. Repairs and replacing divots after matches is an important part of the maintenance programme to restore playing surfaces. The use of a hand fork to lift depressed turf and gentle pressing with the foot is the best way to return/replace divots. However, on larger areas the use of harrows will help return levels.

Goalposts: Inspect goal posts and sockets to check they are safe and secure. Also ensure post pads are secure during matches.

Marking out: Frequency - as required. Playing pitch surfaces can often become muddy and very wet in February, which may sometimes affect the performance of wheel to wheel transfer line marking machines. To overcome this problem, other marking systems are available. Pressure jet and dry line markers are able to produce lines on uneven and muddy surfaces. Care should be taken when initially marking out new lines, ensuring that they are true, straight and measured correctly, using the 3,4,5 method to achieve accurate angles.

There are a number of machines available for marking out lines, wheel to wheel, spray jet, dry liners and aerosol markers. The choice will be dependant on cost, efficiency and the type of line you want. Ensure the machine is clean and ready for use. Always wash down the machine after use; if you are not likely to use the machine for a few days it would be advisable to empty it, particularly with spray jet markers; keep connections clean, spray with WD 40 to help keep it protected.